The Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale

Doris J. Day, Curt M. Littler, Richard W. Swift and Scott Gottlieb

The WSRS is a valid and reliable instrument for quantitative assessment of facial skin folds, with good inter- and intra-observer consistency. By allowing objective and reproducible grading of data, the WSRS should prove a useful clinical tool for assessi

Consensus Recommendations on the Use of Injectable Poly-L-Lactic Acid for Facial and Nonfacial Volum

Danny Vleggaar MD, Rebecca Fitzgerald MD, Z. Paul Lorenc MD FACS, J.Todd Andrews MD, Kimberly Butterwick MD, Jody Comstock MD, C. William Hanke MD, T. Gerald O'Daniel MD FACS, Melanie D. Palm MD MBA, Wendy E. Roberts MD, Neil Sadick MD, and Craig F. Tell

Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was approved for use in Europe in 1999. In the United States, it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus, and in 2009 for cosm

The biological basis for poly-L-lactic acid-induced augmentation

Philipp Stein , Olga Vitavska , Peter Kind , Willi Hoppe , Helmut Wieczorek , Nanna Y. Schurer

PLLA-induced augmentation is most likely based on capsule formation orchestrating macrophages, (myo-)fibroblasts, and collagen type I and III fibres. We observed considerably slower degradation of PLLA particles than described previously. Thus PLLA partic